Karbon

Karbon (saking kruna Latin: carbo "batu bara") silih tunggil datu kimia antuk simbol C miwah wilangan atom 6. Inucap ten logam miwah tétravalén ngasilang papat éléktron kasedia antuk ngawentuk paiketan kimia kovalén. Punika rumasuk seka 14 saking tabél périodik.[14] Karbon wantah ngawentuk sawatara 0,025 persén kerak gumi.[15]

Karbon, 6C
Diamond-and-graphite-with-scale.jpg
Grafit (kiwa) miwah berlian (tengen), kalih alotrop karbon
Karbon
kaŕbon·
Cingakanbening (intan) & hitam (grafit)
Bobot atom standar Ar, std(C)[12.009612.0116] konvénsional: 12.011
Karbon ring tabél périodik
Hidrogén Hélium
Litium Bérilium Boron Karbon Nitrogén Oksigén Fluorin Néon
Natrium Magnésium Aluminium Silikon Phosfor Urirang Klorin Argon
Potasium Kalsium Skandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Mangan (datu) Wesi Kobalt Nikel Temaga Séng Gallium Gérmanium Arsenik Sélénium Brom Kripton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirkonium Niobium Molibdénum Téknésium Ruthénium Rhodium Palladium Pérak Kadmium Indium Timah Antimoni Téllurium Iodin Xénon
Sésium Barium Lanthanum Sérium Praséodimium Néodimium Prométhium Samarium Éuropium Gadolinium Terbium Disprosium Holmium Érbium Thulium Itterbium Lutésium Hafnium Tantalum Tungstén Rhénium Osmium Iridium Platinum Mas Rasa (datu) Thallium Timbal Bismuth Polonium Astatin Radon
Fransium Radium Aktinium Thorium Protaktinium Uranium Néptunium Plutonium Amérikium Kurium Berkélium Kalifornium Éinstéinium Férmium Méndélévium Nobélium Lawrénsium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnérium Darmstadtium Roéntgénium Kopérnikium Nihonium Flérovium Moskovium Livermorium Ténnessin Oganésson
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C

Si
boronkarbonnitrogen
Wilangan atom (Z)6
Watekgolongan 14 (golongan karbon)
Périodepériode 2
Blok  blok-p
Konpigurasi éléktron[] 2s2 2p2
Éléktron per kulit2,4
Cecirén pisik
Pase ring STPPadat
Titik sublimasi3915 K ​(3642 °C, ​6588 °F)
Kapadetan (nampek s.r.)Amorf:[1] 1.8–2.1 g/cm3
Intan: 3.515 g/cm3
Grafit: 2.267 g/cm3
Titik tripel4600 K, ​10800[2][3] kPa
Panes fusi117 (grafit) kJ/mol
Kapasitas panes molar6.155 (intan)
8.517 (grafit) J/(mol·K)
Cecirén atom
Paindikan oksidasi−4, −3, −2, −1, 0, +1,[4] +2, +3,[5] +4[6] (oksida asam tenga)
Kaéléktronégatipanskala Pauling: 2.55
Wasa ionisasi
Jeriji kovalén77(sp³), 73(sp²), 69(sp) pm
Jeriji Van der Waals170 pm
Garis warna ring pentang spéktrum
Garis spéktral saking karbon
Cecirén liyanan
Rupa alamiprimordial
Struktur kristalkubus-rombus acuan ajeng
Diamond crystal structure for karbon

(intan, bening)
Kagelisan swara pales tipis18350 (intan) m/s (at 20 °C)
Ékspansi térmal0.8 (intan)[7] µm/(m⋅K) (at 25 °C)
Konduktivitas térmal900-2300 (intan)
119-165 (grafit) W/(m⋅K)
urutan magnetikdiamagnetik[8]
Modulus Young1050 (intan)[7] GPa
Modulus Shear478 (intan)[7] GPa
Modulus Bulk442 (intan)[7] GPa
Rasio Poisson0.1 (intan)[7]
Kakatosan Mohs10 (intan)
1-2 (grafit)
Nomor CAS7440-44-0
Lelintihan
PanemuanMesir Kuno & orang Sumeria[9] (3750 BC)
Diketahui sebagai unsur kimia olehA. Lavoisier[10] (1789)
Isotop utama karbon
Iso­top Kalimpahan Paruh-idup (t1/2) Mode paluruhan Pro­duk
11C syn 20 min β+ 11B
12C 98.9% tegteg
13C 1.1% tegteg
14C trace 5730 y β 14N
Symbol question.svg Kategori:Karbon
| pustaka

PustakaUah

  1. Mal:RubberBible86th
  2. Haaland, D (1976). "Graphite-liquid-vapor triple point pressure and the density of liquid carbon". Carbon. 14 (6): 357. doi:10.1016/0008-6223(76)90010-5.
  3. Savvatimskiy, A (2005). "Measurements of the melting point of graphite and the properties of liquid carbon (a review for 1963–2003)". Carbon. 43 (6): 1115. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2004.12.027.
  4. "Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the Electronic Transition of the Jet-Cooled CCI Free Radical" (PDF). Kaakses 2007-12-06.
  5. "Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the System of CP" (PDF). Kaakses 2007-12-06.
  6. "Carbon: Binary compounds". Kaakses 2007-12-06.
  7. 7,0 7,1 7,2 7,3 7,4 Properties of diamond, Ioffe Institute Database
  8. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  9. "History of Carbon and Carbon Materials - Center for Applied Energy Research - University of Kentucky". Caer.uky.edu. Kaakses 2008-09-12.
  10. Senese, Fred (200-09-09). "Who discovered carbon?". Frostburg State University. Kaakses 2007-11-24. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  11. "Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the System of CP" (PDF). Kaakses 2007-12-06.
  12. "Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the Electronic Transition of the Jet-Cooled CCI Free Radical" (PDF). Kaakses 2007-12-06.
  13. "Carbon: Binary compounds". Kaakses 2007-12-06.
  14. "carbon | Facts, Uses, & Properties". Encyclopedia Britannica (ring Inggris). Kaarsipin saking versi asli tanggal 2017-10-24.
  15. "carbon". Britannica encyclopedia.