Surya (Indonesia: Matahari, Inggris: Sun) ento bintang ané matongos di tengah tata surya, 1.496×108 km uli Gumi. Gobanné bunter[15] tur bentangné 1.392.684 km, kuang-lebih ping 109 bentang Guminé. Massané kuang-lebih 2×1030 kilogram, 330.000 ping massa Guminé. Surya malakar aji campuhan ané maadan "plasma"[16] ané malakar aji hidrogén (73%), hélium (25%), ajak oksigén, karbon, néon muah besi abedik.[17]

Matahari Sun symbol.svg
Sun white.jpg
Poto ring visible light manut saking solar filter ring warsa 2013 sane wenten sunspot lan limb darkening.
The Sun by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory - 20100819.jpg
False-color potret kapotret ring warsa 2010 sane anggen cahaya ultraviolet (gelombang cahaya 30.4 nm)
Data observasi
Mean distance
from Earth
1 auMal:Val[1]
8 min 19 s at light speed
Visual brightness (V)−26.74[2]
Absolute magnitude4.83[2]
Spectral classificationG2V[3]
MetallicityZ = 0.0122[4]
Angular size31.6–32.7 minutes of arc[5]
AdjectivesSolar
Orbital characteristics
Mean distance
from Milky Way core
≈ Mal:Val
Mal:Val
Galactic period(2.25–2.50)×108 yr
Velocity≈ Mal:Val (orbit around the center of the Milky Way)
≈ Mal:Val (relative to average velocity of other stars in stellar neighborhood)
≈ Mal:Val[6] (relative to the cosmic microwave background)
Physical characteristics
Equatorial radius695,700 km,[7]
696,342 km[8]
Mal:Val[9]
Equatorial circumferenceMal:Val[9]
109 × Earth[9]
FlatteningMal:Val
Area permukaanMal:Val[9]
Mal:Val × Earth[9]
VolumeMal:Val[9]
Mal:Val × Earth
MassaMal:Val[2]
Mal:Val[2]
Average densityMal:Val[2][9][10]
Mal:Val × Earth[2][9]
Center density (modeled)Mal:Val[2]
Mal:Val × Earth
Equatorial surface gravityMal:Val[2]
28 × Earth[9]
Moment of inertia factorMal:Val[2] (estimate)
Escape velocity
(from the surface)
Mal:Val[9]
55 × Earth[9]
SuhuCenter (modeled): Mal:Val[2]
Photosphere (effective): Mal:Val[2]
Corona: ≈ Mal:Val
Luminosity (Lsol)Mal:Val[2]
≈ Mal:Val
≈ Mal:Val efficacy
Color (B-V)0.63
Mean radiance (Isol)Mal:Val
Age≈ 4.6 billion years[11][12]
Karakteristik rotasi
Obliquity7.25°[2]
(to the ecliptic)
67.23°
(to the galactic plane)
Right ascension
of North pole[13]
286.13°
19 h 4 min 30 s
Declination
of North pole
+63.87°
63° 52' North
Sidereal rotation period
(at equator)
25.05 d[2]
(at 16° latitude)25.38 d[2]
25 d 9 h 7 min 12 s[13]
(ring kutub)34.4 d[2]
Kecepatan rotasi
(ring ekuator)
Mal:Val[9]
Komposisi Photospheric (manut massa)
Hidrogen73.46%[14]
Helium24.85%
Oksigen0.77%
Karbon0.29%
Besi0.16%
Neon0.12%
Nitrogen0.09%
Silikon0.07%
Magnesium0.05%
Sulphur0.04%

PustakaSunting

  1. Pitjeva, E. V.; Standish, E. M. (2009). "Proposals for the masses of the three largest asteroids, the Moon–Earth mass ratio and the Astronomical Unit". Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy (dalam bahasa Inggris). 103 (4): 365–372. doi:10.1007/s10569-009-9203-8. ISSN 1572-9478.
  2. 2,00 2,01 2,02 2,03 2,04 2,05 2,06 2,07 2,08 2,09 2,10 2,11 2,12 2,13 2,14 2,15 Williams, D.R. (1 July 2013). "Sun Fact Sheet". NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Kaarsipin saking versi asli tanggal 15 July 2010. Kaakses tanggal 12 August 2013. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (wantuan)
  3. Zombeck, Martin V. (1990). Handbook of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press.
  4. Asplund, M.; Grevesse, N.; Sauval, A.J. (2006). "The new solar abundances – Part I: the observations". Communications in Asteroseismology. 147: 76–79. Bibcode:2006CoAst.147...76A. doi:10.1553/cia147s76.
  5. "Eclipse 99: Frequently Asked Questions". NASA. Kaarsipin saking versi asli tanggal 27 May 2010. Kaakses tanggal 24 October 2010. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (wantuan)
  6. Hinshaw, G.; et al. (2009). "Five-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe observations: data processing, sky maps, and basic results". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 180 (2): 225–245. arXiv:0803.0732. Bibcode:2009ApJS..180..225H. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/180/2/225.
  7. Mal:Cite arxiv
  8. Emilio, Marcelo; Kuhn, Jeff R.; Bush, Rock I.; Scholl, Isabelle F. (2012), "Measuring the Solar Radius from Space during the 2003 and 2006 Mercury Transits", The Astrophysical Journal, 750 (2): 135, arXiv:1203.4898, Bibcode:2012ApJ...750..135E, doi:10.1088/0004-637X/750/2/135
  9. 9,00 9,01 9,02 9,03 9,04 9,05 9,06 9,07 9,08 9,09 9,10 9,11 "Solar System Exploration: Planets: Sun: Facts & Figures". NASA. Kaarsipin saking versi asli tanggal 2 January 2008.
  10. Ko, M. (1999). Elert, G., ed. "Density of the Sun". The Physics Factbook.
  11. Bonanno, A.; Schlattl, H.; Paternò, L. (2002). "The age of the Sun and the relativistic corrections in the EOS". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 390 (3): 1115–1118. arXiv:astro-ph/0204331. Bibcode:2002A&A...390.1115B. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20020749.
  12. Connelly, JN; Bizzarro, M; Krot, AN; Nordlund, Å; Wielandt, D; Ivanova, MA (2 November 2012). "The Absolute Chronology and Thermal Processing of Solids in the Solar Protoplanetary Disk". Science. 338 (6107): 651–655. Bibcode:2012Sci...338..651C. doi:10.1126/science.1226919. PMID 23118187.Mal:Registration required
  13. 13,0 13,1 Seidelmann, P.K.; et al. (2000). "Report Of The IAU/IAG Working Group On Cartographic Coordinates And Rotational Elements Of The Planets And Satellites: 2000". Kaakses tanggal 22 March 2006.
  14. "The Sun's Vital Statistics". Stanford Solar Center. Kaakses tanggal 29 July 2008. Citing Eddy, J. (1979). A New Sun: The Solar Results From Skylab. NASA. hlm. 37. NASA SP-402.
  15. "How Round is the Sun?". NASA.
  16. "First Ever STEREO Images of the Entire Sun". NASA.
  17. Basu, S.; Antia, H.M. (2008). "Helioseismology and Solar Abundances". Physics Reports. 457 (5–6): 217–283