Basa Sansekerta

Basa Sansekerta (संस्कृतम्, anggén aksara Latin: saṃskṛtam, kaucapang [sɐ̃skɽɪtɐm]) inggih punika basa India kuna sané lantang babadnyané kirang-langkung 3.500 warsa.[4][5] Sansekerta masoroh basa-basa Indo-Arya.[4] Sansekerta inggih punika basa suratan indik agama miwah filosofi Hindu miwah suratan akéh kakawian agama Buddha miwah Jain miwah dados lingua franca India kuna.[6][7] Ring pangawit abad ka-1 M, Sansekerta ibéh ka Asia Tenggara,[8] Asia Timur[9] miwah Asia Tengah[10] sareng agama Buddha miwah Hindu, pinaka basa budaya luhur miwah basa sané kaanggén olih élit sané nitah wawidangan-wawidangan punika.[11][12] Sansekerta pinaka basa kasurat ngawitin ring abad ka-2 SM saking Rigveda.

Basa Sanskerta
संस्कृतम्
Saṃskṛtam
Saṁskrtavāk
The word संस्कृतम् (Sanskrit) in Sanskrit.svg
Saṃskṛtam rign aksara Déwanagari
PengucapanMal:IPA-sa
Kaanggén ringAsia
WawengkonIndia miwah Indonésia sareng makudang-kudang wewidangan liyanan ring Asia Kelod miwah Tenggara
EraAbad Milenium ke-2 SM – 600 SM (Basa Sanskerta Weda);[1]
600 SM-mangkin(Basa Sanskerta Klasik)
Indo-Éropa
Basa sadurungnyané
Aslinyane dados basa lisan. Nenten wénten aksara sané resmi antuk basa puniki; nanging ring milenium kapertama Masehi, basa puniki kasurat ring aksara berumpun Brahmi.[lower-alpha 1][2][3]
Status resmi
Basa minoritas
ring
Kode basa
ISO 639-1sa
ISO 639-2san
ISO 639-3san
Taittiriya Samhita Veda
Rigveda

PustakaUah

  1. Uta Reinöhl (2016). Grammaticalization and the Rise of Configurationality in Indo-Aryan. Oxford University Press. pp. xiv, 1–16. ISBN 978-0-19-873666-0.
  2. Jain, Dhanesh (2007). "Sociolinguistics of the Indo-Aryan languages". Ring George Cardona; Dhanesh Jain (eds.). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. pp. 47–66, 51. ISBN 978-1-135-79711-9. In the history of Indo-Aryan, writing was a later development and its adoption has been slow even in modern times. The first written word comes to us through Asokan inscriptions dating back to the third century BC. Originally, Brahmi was used to write Prakrit (MIA); for Sanskrit (OIA) it was used only four centuries later (Masica 1991: 135). The MIA traditions of Buddhist and Jain texts show greater regard for the written word than the OIA Brahminical tradition, though writing was available to Old Indo-Aryans.
  3. Salomon, Richard (2007). "The Writing Systems of the Indo-Aryan Languages". Ring George Cardona; Dhanesh Jain (eds.). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. pp. 67–102. ISBN 978-1-135-79711-9. Although in modern usage Sanskrit is most commonly written or printed in Nagari, in theory, it can be represented by virtually any of the main Brahmi-based scripts, and in practice it often is. Thus scripts such as Gujarati, Bangla, and Oriya, as well as the major south Indian scripts, traditionally have been and often still are used in their proper territories for writing Sanskrit. Sanskrit, in other words, is not inherently linked to any particular script, although it does have a special historical connection with Nagari.
  4. 4,0 4,1 George Cardona (2012). Sanskrit Language. Encyclopaedia Britannica
  5. Harold G. Coward (1990). The Philosophy of the Grammarians, in Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies Volume 5 (Editor: Karl Potter). Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-81-208-0426-5
  6. Damien Keown; Charles S. Prebish (2013). Encyclopedia of Buddhism. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-136-98595-9
  7. A. M. Ruppel (2017). The Cambridge Introduction to Sanskrit. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-08828-3
  8. Ramesh Chandra Majumdar (1974). Study of Sanskrit in South-East Asia. Sanskrit College
  9. Charles Orzech; Henrik Sørensen; Richard Payné (2011). Esoteric Buddhism and the Tantras in East Asia. BRILL Academic. pp. 985–996. ISBN 978-90-04-18491-6
  10. Banerji, Sures (1989). A companion to Sanskrit literature: spanning a period of over three thousand years, containing brief accounts of authors, works, characters, technical terms, geographical names, myths, legends, and several appendices. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0063-2
  11. Michael C. Howard (2012). Transnationalism in Ancient and Medieval Societies: The Role of Cross-Border Trade and Travel. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-9033-2
  12. Sheldon Pollock (2009). The Language of the Gods in the World of Men: Sanskrit, Culture, and Power in Premodern India. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-26003-0

CutetanUah

  1. "In conclusion, there are strong systemic and paleographic indications that the Brahmi script derived from a Semitic prototype, which, mainly on historical grounds, is most likely to have been Aramaic. However, the details of this problem remain to be worked out, and in any case, it is unlikely that a complete letter-by-letter derivation will ever be possible; for Brahmi may have been more of an adaptation and remodeling, rather than a direct derivation, of the presumptive Semitic prototype, perhaps under the influence of a preexisting Indian tradition of phonetic analysis. However, the Semitic hypothesis 1s not so strong as to rule out the remote possibility that further discoveries could drastically change the picture. In particular, a relationship of some kind, probably partial or indirect, with the protohistoric Indus Valley script should not be considered entirely out of the question." Salomon 1998, p. 30

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