Sémér utawi Prigi inggih punika struktur sané kawangun ring tanah sané kakeduk utawi kabor sané kangge ngaruruh toya, minyak utawi gas. Sémér sané pinih akéh kaanggén wantah sémér sané kanggén ngaruruh toyatanah saking aquifer. sémér punika kagenahin ring umah utawi jero lumbrahnyané nampek tekén pawaregan duaning kaangge kaperluan sadina-dina. Toya saking tanah katimba nganggé émbér sané madué tali sané kawastanin timba. Sémér sané pinih modern sané katemuin ring kota-kota agengnyané alit, kirang langkung sa pipa PVC inggih punika 3"-8", toya katimba nganggé kompa listrik.

Sémér ring Kerala, India

BabadSunting

Sémér malakar antuk kayu sampun kauningan saking daweg Neolitikum utawi zaman batu muda, Contonyané ring Ostrov, Républik Céko warsa 5265 SM[1]. Bukti sémér toya sané pinih simalu katemuin ring Cina. Ring cakepan Yi Jing kasurat sapunapi krama cina kuna ngemban sémér tur nyage klebutannyane[2].

Ring mesir kuna, Syaduf lan sakia sané kaangen[3]. Sakia punika wantah sémér sané madué kincir sané kaagen nimba toyane. Sakia mresidayang nimba toya saking sémér sadalem 10m sakewanten syaduf mresidayang nimba 3m kewanten. Sémér sané pinih kuna katemuin ring siprus duk warsa 7000-8500 SM[4].

 
Sakia ring mesir kuna.

Sémér sané madué tatujon lianan kakaryanin sesampun sémér toya. Sémér tasik sané kapartama kapainget wantah ring provinsi Sichuan, Cina 2,250 warsa dumunan[2]. Sémér minyak utawi lengis sané kapertama taler katemuin ring cina duk warsa 347 M. Sémér punika madué kadaleman kirang langkung 240 meter tur kakeduk ngagge matan bor sané kategul ring tiing[5]. Minyake punika kaagen ngaryaning tasik saking toya tasik utawi Brine.

SorohSunting

Sémér KedukSunting

Sémér sané kakeduk lumrah madué diameter jangkep kaange antuk jadma adiri utawi akehan sané pacang nyongcong tanah kanti muka air tanah. Tembok sémér lumrah ngage bata utawi batu mangda tanahe nenten apih. Tembok sémér punika kakaryanin duurang saking tanah mangda nglabet baya minakadi toya kacemerin utawi jadma runtuh ka sémér. Sémér prasida kakeduk sedalem 60 meter.

Sémér BorSunting

 
Pinakit waterborne mrasidanyang kalalahin saking WC ke sémér.

Sémér Bor kakeduk ngange mesin bor lan katimba ngagge kompa. Sémér Bor prasida kakeduk daleman bandingan ring sémér keduk, sering kanti satus meter[6].

KontaminasiSunting

Sémér sané dakén wantah mresidayang dados sumber toya sané mudah. Sakewanten sémér sané dakén punika dangan kacemerin bandingang ring sémér sané daleman. Sémér sané kacemerin mresidayang ngalalarang pinakit sané ngalalar saking toya utawi Waterborne.

PatogenSunting

Makehan bakteri, virus, parasit miwah oong sané ngregedin sémér masumber saking tai utawi feses manusa lan baburon, contonyané saking sistem sanitisi minakadi septic tank utawi badan ubuan. Bakteri sané lumrah katemuin minakadi E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella, lan Campylobacter jejuni. Virus sané lumrah katemuin minakadi norovirus, sapovirus, rotavirus, enteroviruses, and hepatitis A and E. Parasit sané lumrah katemuin minakadi Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and microsporidia[7].

Kontaminasi kimiaSunting

Kontaminasi kimia wantah pikobet sané akeh katemuin ring toya tanah. Nitrat saking limbah WC utawi rabuk wantah pikobet buat anak alit lan rare. Polutan kimia minakadi pestisida, bensin, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) lan bahan kimia lianan[8].

PustakaSunting

  1. Rybníček, Michal; Kočár, Petr; Muigg, Bernhard; Peška, Jaroslav; Sedláček, Radko; Tegel, Willy; Kolář, Tomáš (2020-03-01). "World's oldest dendrochronologically dated archaeological wood construction". Journal of Archaeological Science (in Inggris). 115: 105082. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2020.105082. ISSN 0305-4403.
  2. 2,0 2,1 "Ancient Chinese Drilling". CSEG RECORDER Magazine (in Inggris). Retrieved 2020-04-07.
  3. "Sakia | water-supply system". Encyclopedia Britannica (in Inggris). Retrieved 2020-04-07.
  4. "Stone Age wells found in Cyprus" (in Inggris). 2009-06-25. Retrieved 2020-04-07.
  5. "ASTM International - Standards Worldwide". www.astm.org. Retrieved 2020-04-07.
  6. Germer, Jerry, 1938-. Kitchen & bath residential construction and systems. National Kitchen and Bath Association (U.S.) (edisi ka-Second edition). Hoboken, New Jersey. ISBN 978-1-118-71104-0. OCLC 830669202.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: extra text (link)
  7. Diseases, Committee on Environmental Health and Committee on Infectious (2009-06-01). "Drinking Water From Private Wells and Risks to Children". Pediatrics (in Inggris). 123 (6): 1599–1605. doi:10.1542/peds.2009-0751. ISSN 0031-4005. PMID 19482772.
  8. Water sources. American Water Works Association. (edisi ka-3rd ed). Denver, CO: American Water Works Association. 2003. ISBN 1-58321-229-9. OCLC 52152155.CS1 maint: others (link) CS1 maint: extra text (link)